Five Freedoms for animals The RSPCA subscribes to the "Five Domains" model developed by Prof David Mellor and Dr Cam Reid in 1994, which outlined a way to identify and grade the severity of different welfare issues. By examining the physical and functional factors of nutrition, environment, health and behaviour and how they impact on an animal's mental state, the welfare status of an animal could be determined. This model was based on the Five Freedoms for animals. FIVE FREEDOMS FIVE DOMAINS Freedom from hunger and thirst by providing access to fresh water and a balanced diet to maintain full health. Nutrition Animals must have access to suitable quantities of a balanced diet of a variety of nutritious foods and water for optimal health. Freedom from discomfort by providing a safe environment, shelter and a comfortable resting place. Environment Animals must have safe, ample space with suitable temperature, air flow, light and protection from noise for optimal health. Freedom from pain, injury and disease through prevention, rapid diagnosis and treatment Health Animals must be treated for disease, injury or functional impairment to maintain an appropriate body condition and good fitness. Freedom to express normal behaviour by providing sufficient space, proper facilities and company of the animal's own kind. Behaviour Animals must be provided with opportunities to engage in play, explore, move, bond and interact with others of their species, and have suitable space to retreat and sleep. Freedom from fear and distress by ensuring conditions and treatment which avoid mental suffering. Mental State An animal's overall welfare is directly affected by factors of nutrition, environment, health and behaviour, which all impact on the mental health of animals. For more information about the Five Freedoms and the Five Domains, please visit the RSPCA Knowledge Base.